Monday, February 19, 2018

More than We Imagine: Imagination

Alex Chinneck
Imagination is one of those words–or ideas–along with creative, curious, inventive, etc. that we use freely and, in my mind, sling around altogether too easily. I do this myself. Then one day, that word or idea suddenly insists on being considered newly, seriously, in another light. It demands I pay attention to what I am saying, what I mean…or at least what I think we mean.

Most of us have our own definition(s) of imagination. Yet, each of us probably means something different when we do so. We may think of imagination as holding an image in our mind. Sometimes we refer to imagination as a recreation of something that exists and sometimes as something that is far from reality that we have made up. We find imagination in mission statements, learning frameworks, and outcomes. We invite visitors to, "Learn, imagine, create." We like to quote Einstein’s assertion that “Imagination is more important than knowledge".  Sometimes we use imagination, creativity, and fantasy interchangeably.

In this mix, we do find clues about imagination as we commonly know it. It is a mental representation of a thought or an idea. It is pretending, leans into fantasy, and is associated with creativity. This, however, is a limited view of imagination and its potential. This is hardly surprising considering the complex, interconnected nature of the mind and its processes.

Imagination is more than sparking ideas, pretending to be a pirate or fairy princess, or daydreaming. Entwined with knowledge, thinking, and experience, imagination is a source of knowledge as well as transforms knowledge. Through imagination we both learn about reality and escape from reality through imagination.

I recently came across a definition for imagination (referencing Crespi et al) in an article in American Journal of Play by Larry Vandervert (Vol. 9, No. 2. December 2017).

The term ‘imagination’ is considered here as the faculty or action of forming new ideas, or images or concepts of external objects not present to the senses, typically derived from creative integration of past experiences, learning, or other information…production of novelty through imagination thus takes place through deriving elements of verbal or visual thought from perception and memory and combining them in new ways.

Besides the title, “Vygotsky Meets Neuroscience,” several things drew my attention. First, I seldom come across a pause in an article or book to define a term like imagination, let alone one that distinguishes a faculty from a disposition from a quality. Like most people, I was familiar with imagination as forming something new. But I had thought less about the sources for these novel ideas or images, something the next part of the definition addressed.

Imagination draws from multiple, extensive sources of ideas and images–what we have learned, experienced and remember; what we are perceiving now; and what we are not immediately sensing but have previously experienced. We can form images of objects and spaces that are visible and sensible and that are hidden too. We can even form new images in our minds based on something we have not experienced or only partially experienced with the help of what we have seen, heard, or felt before. Imaginings don’t need to be finished or complete.

Consequently imagination serves as a faculty for considering what is possible that is not now happening, for considering alternative actions, and even for changing the rules for possible worlds. If we can integrate past experiences, learning, and information, we can resolve a conflict, design a new strategy to deal with a vexing problem, step into new situations, remake failed systems, create a more compassionate world, discover new forms of expression, open doors to new thinking.

Imagination in the Everyday-Extraordinary
When we imagine, we are not just extracting images from a mental vault. Rather we are plumbing for and remixing ideas and images, sounds, sensations, and memories in fresh, novel, original ways. In response to the moment and situation or to some prompt we may not even be aware of, we connect facts not ordinarily viewed together, we invert normal circumstances, and we bridge what is here and not-here. The more I look into imagination, the more I see its rich and varied expressions in the ordinary and extraordinary moments across our lives and lifespans.

Assisted by our imaginations, we navigate through space, moving from place to place, exploring, and going on adventures. When we think about our location, where we want to go, and how to get there, we are projecting our movement through space on an imaginary map. We imagine different routes to get to the same place and walk, bike, or drive there…when we are not using Google Maps.

Empathy, important in social relations, understanding and caring for others, involves recognizing and imagining what someone else might be feeling, experiencing, or saying. Bringing to mind what it might be like for another person dealing with a situation or feelings can help us plan how to welcome, include, listen, help, and engage with them.

In a similar way, assuming another perspective involves imagining what we might sense or understand if we were in another–or another person’s–position. Much like a hypothesis, we can imagine what their position, size, vantage point, or previous experiences might afford them, without actually seeing what they are actually doing or where they are. We work with another vantage point when we take turns, play a game, or collaborate.   

Nazca Lineas, Peru (Photo Diego Delso)
Engaging our imaginations allows us to mentally travel beyond the here-and-now. In suspending the present time and place, we imagine far away landscapes and places, distant times, and other cultures. Feeling as if we are stepping into a painting or a photograph, walking through the glass into a diorama, entering a story, living in the historic past changes our connection to the world and, for the moment, to ourselves.

Imagination is sometimes a creative response to what is being experienced or dreamed. We construct imagined worlds, small and large, with powerful words, arresting images, deep stories, and evocative objects. Fiction, art, and music are imaginations that not only take us to another place and time but also offer a different truth about the world.

Imagination stretches from the deepest personal meaning for each of us into new futures for all of us. On an individual scale, imagination is a companion to our evolving selves. It provides us with visions of who we might be, who we want to become, and how we might change. At the same time, imagination allows us to glimpse what is possible in an uncertain future–at that moment–a moment that moves on. We don’t know the outcome of the imagined change, but we’ve had that glimpse and what we saw can change us.

Expanding Imagination
Everyone has an imagination, a powerful tool for navigating daily routines, meeting small and large challenges, delighting ourselves, and moving our thinking to new places. This marvel rests right at the convergence of museums’ interests around learning, connecting with people, and changing lives.

How can museums create the conditions that stimulate, engage, and support the imaginations of visitors, staff, volunteers, and trustees?

Time is one significant condition for encouraging imagination. When we play, explore, act on our curiosity, wonder, tinker, pursue interests, figure out how things work, and play with different facts, our imaginations flex and flourish. This benefits from–or perhaps requires–time for sinking into the moment and following it. Museums are well aware of the challenges of limited time and escaping from its constraints. They know to take time into account in creating experiences, eliminating distractions, and scaling experiences to available time. Museums can also work with their own imaginations to develop:

• Rich, multi-sensory experiences
• Invitations to be a novice
• Reasons to go beyond the current time and space
• Experiences and opportunities that engage and provoke
• Reasons to exercise their own imagination

Rich, multi-sensory experiences. Imagination allows us to form new ideas, images, and concepts of external objects that are not immediately present to our senses. Nevertheless, we need to nourish and enrich these very senses. The sights, sounds, textures, and sometimes smells and flavors of museum environments and experiences engage our senses, evoke memories, and offer new connections. While strongly multi-sensory, museums must also be thoughtful about creating evocative, relevant, and meaningful sensory experiences that attune and heighten our awareness of our senses. 

Invitations to be a novice. Children are novices in their world yet they understand enough about how the world works to have hunches and make predictions about what might happen or explain why something happened in the past. With their imaginations they explore, think about, and understand other ways the world might work and possible ways people might act. Adults too can be novices in situations, not fully understanding how things work and using their imaginations to test possibilities and work out problems.

Reasons to go beyond the current time and space. Our imaginations allow us to reach beyond the apparent limitations of our current place and moment. Sometimes we need a reason to go past our here-and-now; a way to step into someone else’s shoes; and dislocate from this time and place. In the experiences museums create are opportunities that can shift perspectives, develop empathy, deepen connections, and engage others in an historical experience. 

Experiences and opportunities that engage and provoke. Sometimes museums design experiences a little too completely, leaving insufficient room for visitors and learners to fill in with their imaginations, questions, creativity, experiments, and previous experiences. In celebrating and featuring others’ creativity or imaginations, we may be encouraging visitors to be observers and consumers of other’s creativity rather producers of their own imaginative ideas. We can never replace the power and excitement of conjuring our own new worlds or fresh possibilities.

Reasons to exercise their own imaginations. Occasionally, if not often, we must all stretch and recharge our own imaginative capacities. We need to pause and bring out something we can’t immediately sense at that moment, think of how things might possibly be, or simply change the context in which we view ideas. Without some practice and fluency with the nature and workings of imagination, we limit ourselves in our thinking about shaping museum experiences, preparing the environment, selecting materials, listening to visitors, stepping back, and allowing things to unfold.

How does your museum view imagination and its role in learning for visitors and for the museum? In what ways does the museum encourage, support, and extend imagination in the experiences it creates and in its practices across the museum?


Resources
• Achim, Marianne. (2016). The Role of Imagination inMuseum Visits. Nordisk Museologi 2016•1,s. 89-100 
• Crespi, Bernard J., Emma Leach, Natalie Dinsdale, Michael Mokkonen, and Peter Hurd. 2016. “Imagination in Human Social Cognition, Autism, and Psychotic-Affective Conditions.” Cognition 150:181-99. P. 182.
• Gopnik, Alison. (2009). The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us About Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life. New York: Picador. 2009.
• Spock, Dan. (2009) Imagination: A Child’s Gateway to Engagement in Rainey, D. Lynn and John Russick (Eds.) Connecting Kids to History with Museum Exhibitions. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, Inc.

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Mid-winter Museum Meander

Annual Luminary Loppet on Lake of the Isles
Winters are cold in Minnesota. We’re used to it and make the most of it. Even in winter folks in the Twin Cities walk, commute by bike, and go to the dog park. In winter we skate and ski on the lakes. People ice fish and celebrate the ice shanty as art. Some people even go skijorling on the city lakes–skiing pulled by dogs. Annual events like the Lumiary Loppet celebrate the beauty of cold, dark, and precious light.

In a recent run of sub-zero nights (the longest since the 1890’s…yes, 1890’s) and blizzard conditions accompanying deep-sub-zero daytime temperatures, I took a walk among beauty, surprise, and remarkable views. I visited the MIA (or mia), Minneapolis Institute of Arts. A mere 1.5 miles from my house, the MIA has what feel like miles of galleries and halls on 3 floors across almost 500,000 square feet of space. Its free general admission is a blessing, especially in this weather.

After shedding layers of fleece and down at the coat check, I climbed to the third floor and arrived in Europe and America 1600 – 1900. I started my stroll through some of the 43 galleries covering 1600 – 1900 including period rooms, walking, slowing, reading labels, watching people, eavesdropping (just a little), and resting now and then. As I went, I speeded up and slowed down, pausing for what caught my eye: a writing desk c. 1870 attributed to William Howard an enslaved and later free man; a 19th century Arrangement with Flowers by Georgius Jacobus Van Os; Delacroix’s Convulsionists of Tangier painted from 1837-1838; a sculpture of Diana with a Bow (1890) by Frederick William MacMonnies; and, for good snowy measure, Paul Signac’s Snow, Boulevard de Clichy, Paris, 1886. 
Snow falling on the park and city
My ramble through the 19th century was in some ways much like a city stroll. Views of paintings and sculptures alternated with views of snow falling on trees and shrubs in the adjacent park capped by the city skyline.

A quiet moment in the period reading room







Judging from the traffic near the period rooms, I wasn’t alone in searching out a mid-winter museum meander to escape from the cold. Traffic was thick and punctuated by comments and conversation around the 10-12 period rooms. Maybe configuration of the rooms opening off a long narrow gallery suggested a neighborhood, a casual ramble, and friendly comments to passersby. A family looking into the Duluth Living Room shared its questions with one another and with strangers who were also leaning over the rail. “Who made that furniture, Dad?” “Didn’t we see that lake before?” “Look at that telephone.” “It’s so dark in there.”

MIA’s Living Rooms, temporary installations in selected period rooms, animated the spaces and informed visitor interactions and conversations. As light transformed a 17th century drawing room from day to night, visitors guessed the time of day, shivered at an eerie feel of the room, and imagined they were at the party playing cards. 
Jet-pack powered sisters explore the universe for art
In the Jane Austen Reading Room, I came across a women–a visitor–lounging in a chair, reading, and looking very much at home. She had taken the theme of the next room, Science and Sociability quite seriously. 

Mid-afternoon, the Europe and America 1600 – 1900 galleries and Period Rooms started filling with families with young children. As the second Sunday of the month, it was Family Day. Its theme was, “To the Moon!” Children were wearing the jet-packs they had constructed, carried the lunar landscapes they’d painted, and worked with their families on a Gallery Hunt for art that promised to be, “out of this world.” Families were huddled around maps; children checked labels up close and argued their case for clues to the artwork being described on the hunt. Other children wandered off finding a painting to look at quietly.

When my meander was finished I stood in line to pick up my winter layers. Surrounded by children also waiting for their gear, I heard one child after another talk about what they’d been doing. Some described the clues they’d found; some mentioned children who had helped others put clues together; some relished reliving the moment they found objects in the painting. Then we all left the warmth of the mid-winter museum meander and headed into the cold and snowy north. 
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Thursday, January 18, 2018

Four Years Later: Reflections on 2013 Museums Study Tour to Reggio




Ray of Light Studios continue to inspire
In November 2013, 50 participants from 11 museums with partners from higher ed, libraries, community organizations, early childhood, and preschools traveled to Reggio Emilia in northern Italy for a study tour of the city’s schools. Over the course of a week, the group was immersed in the pedagogy of the municipal schools with presentations by early childhood specialists, educators, and studio teachers; visits to infant-toddler centers and preschools; and tours of documentation and recycle centers.

Returning from the November 2013 Museums Study Tour Reggio participants shared their experiences with colleagues and area teachers. One group of participants organized a full day pre-conference for InterActivity 2014 in Phoenix. Attended by more than 30 the conference was followed by a set of articles, Adopting/Adapting: Reggio in Children’s Museums, in the spring 2014 issue of Hand To Hand.

Since then participants have been active in exploring these ideas more deeply, engaging in and adapting Reggio-inspired practice to museum and school settings. Work ranges from events with visibility like Tacoma Children’s Museum’s annual co-sponsorship of Symposium on Our Youngest Citizens to personal acts of rereading notebooks and journals from the weeklong visit. In some of the groups such as South Dakota Children’s Museum and Opal School, Reggio practices are foundational, embedded into the work, and supported by the shared experience of several study tour participants. In other cases individuals intently and patiently have looked for opportunities to weave these ideas into existing “duties as assigned.”  

Our group: November 2013
Recently I proposed to the study tour participants that we look back at this remarkable opportunity and share our reflections with one another. A dozen study tour participants, approximately one-quarter of the group, wrote and talked about their experience in Reggio and its presence in their work now. A continuing energy and appreciation for the roomy ideas we were able to explore comes through all of the reflections. The opportunity to visit schools, observe children, and listen to seasoned Reggio educators over the week added depth and dimension to understanding this complex pedagogy and increased awareness of the rigor that guides it. Moments stand out, shifting perspectives on existing practice were noted, and new questions have emerged. Yet, these reflections also indicate the challenging, on-going, and some times lonely nature of this work, work variously described as a life-long journey and a struggle to weave learning from Reggio into daily work.

As I reflected on connections between the study tour and what these participants have been doing, thinking, and wondering about, several threads emerged. They are, hopefully, invitations to further reflections, questions, and explorations.

•                Moments from the 2013 study tour still stand out vividly 4 years later. Illuminated moments around the relationship between aesthetics and ethics; children as citizens now; and the child’s agency have become touchstones and provocations for continued thinking and further exploration.  

•          Consistent with Reggio philosophy, relationship and collaboration characterize on-going work among study tour participants. Participants were encouraged to apply with museum, school, or community colleagues and many pairs and groups did so. Hence, it’s not surprising that relationships among participants have grown and are active. Less predictable, however, is that the study tour group has become a kind of Reggio-inspired network for its participants, building on pre-existing relationships, strengthening connections, and offering new associations. 

Adapting Reggio to the museum: from the final reflection
•                The complexity of Reggio ideas combined with the challenge of translating them into new contexts invites collaboration around projects. Appreciation of the challenge of translating practices into another culture and contexts in meaningful ways is very apparent. This challenge points to the importance, or perhaps necessity, of thinking together about these rich, complex ideas. Projects have been instrumental in adapting Reggio ideas and practices to other settings.

•                Four years after the study tour, the hopes and possibilities of Reggio-inspired connections, conversations, small experiments, and projects are coming to fruition in some of our museums and schools. This is encouraging in several ways. In museums such a time frame is typical, even short, for major projects, re-imagining a museum, or changing course. Learning, adapting, and meaningful change take time. Undoubtedly, promising connections and new projects that will emerge in perhaps 4-5 years are incubating now.

Looking Back
Four years after the museums study tour, 16 years after my first study tour, and 24+ years after first being introduced to Reggio, I am as drawn to the question of how one transforms thinking and practice as I am to the hardworking principles of Reggio pedagogy itself. The principles of the child as a born thinker, doer, and planner; the 100 Languages of children (or learning); the environment as the third teacher; and the role of pedagogical documentation continue to be compelling. They bring an aesthetic to thinking and learning that is powerful. I am keen to explore these ideas with others more knowledgeable than I am and I want to share them with others who indicate the slightest interest in related ideas such as exploring materials, asking new questions, or children as citizens.

Because I don’t work in a museum, school, or a firm with others, I have “borrowed” the participants on the 2013 study tour and their museums, schools, and firms to serve as a kind of community of learners for me. I check in on-line, meet-up at conferences, and stay in touch via email with these colleagues. I follow activities like the Children’s Museum of Tacoma’s annual Symposium on Our Youngest Citizens and read the Opal School blog. Opal’s thoughtful posts help shape an image for me of a culture of following ideas and connections and creating movement in thinking for children and teachers.

Diving into these ideas in various ways–through reading, writing, and talking; trying out small experiments; and folding them into my museum planning practice–keeps them present, active, and evolving. Members of the local MN Reggio-inspired network are a great source of Reggio-inspired, related, and connected blogs that are local, national, and international. Exploring Reggio-inspired ideas on my Museum Notes blog pushes me to dig into, unpack, and rethink documentation, the image of the child, the environment as teacher, learning together, etc.

New Starting Points
Strong, capable agents in
thinking, doing, and connecting
My planning work with museums most readily lends itself to advancing an image of the child as strong, capable, and an active agent in their thinking and learning. While not an easy shift from how we as a culture view children, I have found this to be an accessible entry point for a team or museum. It does not require a deep understanding or commitment to the Reggio pedagogy yet it goes to the core of a transformative view of children. It also resonates personally with a desire in each of us to be viewed as capable and appreciated for our strengths. This can lower resistance to a new idea.

With an image of the “rich” child as an organizational value, at the center of learning frameworks, or in experience planning, a museum is poised to make a fundamental shift. Here is an opening for other practices, perhaps developing a shared vocabulary around the strong child, the possibility of a child-driven experience planning process, or the use of documentation to make thinking visible. It may prompt new questions about children’s–and adults’–capabilities and how parents, caregivers, and staff can support, extend, and deepen explorations.

Along with this work, a few museum planning projects have offered opportunities to explore Reggio ideas in the context of museums with like-minded colleagues. Time together with Maeryta Medrano and Julia Bland on the study tour further inspired and grounded approaches to exhibit design, caregiver engagement, graphics and text for the “new” Louisiana Children’s Museum. In a collaborative project between Minnesota Children’s Museum and the Reggio-inspired Network of MN, teachers, parents, and caregivers documented children’s questions and thinking about places that make up communities as part of the redesign of MCM’s Our World gallery.   

Reflections from Reggio
I am fortunate that the Twin Cities has an active, robust Reggio-inspired network I can draw on in this work. Since its founding in 2000, the Network has grown and now offers varied entry points and activities, encouraging self-forming groups: monthly materials explorations, a book study group, and documentation lab. A group around big body play is active. 

Most weeks I am able to join 2 Reggio-inspired educators who encourage and challenge me with their reading, questions, and ideas. For the last 15 months we have been reading from the Contesting Early Childhood series by Routledge. We think together about the conditions that encourage the dispositions in educators and policy makers to be open, creative, and reflective. Often in these moments I am able to glimpse how the rich, hardworking ideas I have found in Reggio interact and take hold with the power to transform. 


Saturday, January 6, 2018

Education Committees: Stage-by-Stage


My work in and with museums has provided me with numerous opportunities to observe the roles and activities of education committees from a variety of perspectives. As a founding board member of the new Madison Children’s Museum, figuring out what an Education Committee should be was a complete mystery. As staff liaison to Minnesota Children’s Museum Education Committee for ten years, I was challenged to find an appropriate match between the work the Committee wanted to do and what staff needed. In my practice of strategic and education planning with many museums, I work with education committees that are also navigating this territory.

Regardless of how individual museums frame their mission and focus, education is at the heart of delivering learning value to their communities. This ambitious task clearly falls under the board’s broad purview and is made easier with a committee appropriately charged with overseeing the museum’s learning interests. If not understood and aligned with these interests, the value of this resource is diminished and can even interfere with the museum’s work.

A well-functioning education committee is valuable at any time, but it is especially valuable when a museum navigates major organizational shifts. For a new museum, the education committee that was instrumental in opening the museum is not the same one needed for the next stage of growth. A museum emerging from a capital project that has doubled its size needs to rethink its education committee. To understand these and other transitions, I have been exploring a stage-based framework for education committees across the life of a museum.

EDUCATION COMMITTEES AS THEY OFTEN ARE
To enjoy long-term success, a museum’s educational work must be relevant to the community, be understood and supported by the board, and be owned by staff. Oversight for a museum’s learning value, practice, and some types of planning are assigned to a board-level education committee, also known variously as program committees or exhibit committees. A museum’s learning focus, expressed in its vision, mission and core values, is delivered through its learning assets, including exhibits, program, and collections.

A museum’s potential learning value is a powerful draw for board members. In new children’s museums, the education committee is often the first to be formed, drawing high interest as a committee assignment and exercising major influence.

Yet, in new as well as more established museums, education committees seem to encounter more challenges and frustrations compared to other board committees such as nomination, finance, marketing and development, about how and when to involve board members. Perhaps factors related to education and informal learning confound the education committee focus and roles.

Learning in museums occurs within a larger context of education, schools, and children’s learning that is being examined and debated publicly and sometimes contentiously. Imprinted with a powerful image of learning in classrooms, many board members are unfamiliar with learning through exhibits and objects in informal settings. In addition, a museum may lack a shared view of learning in its museum. Finally, the same heightened sense of excitement and ownership of a museum’s mission can make it ripe for personal aspirations and agendas.

The Scream by Munch
Education committees are often given a broad charge to oversee the museum’s learning interests but without clear guidance. It is not unusual to struggle to define work at the right level between policy and implementation. In fact, an education committee in one museum might approve exhibit concepts and and design. In another, it might review a long-term exhibit plan. An on-going search to find the right balance between involving board members is paralleled by on-going confusion about board and staff work in this area.

In fact, sometimes as more skilled and specialized staff come on board, challenges increase rather than decrease. An experienced staff’s competence managing exhibits and programs and understanding the community may appear to obviate the need for a committee with a strong sense of ownership. When museum leadership assumes that there “should” be an education committee and puts one in place without a clear purpose, role, trouble lies ahead. But when an education committee works well, even if only briefly, it is a true asset to staff, board, and the museum in accomplishing real work.

Not surprisingly, challenges increase with each transition a museum experiences, whether related to leadership, a change from a working board to a policy board, or a growth spurt that occasions a major capital project. Successful museums typically experience frequent transitions, often finding themselves in new organizational territory. Each shift requires fresh insights into its learning value and serving its audience through exhibits and programs. Each shift poses the question of how committees should be structured to support this new work.

In my experience, individual museums navigate these transitions on their own. They manage with various structures and roles for committees and with varying degrees of success. There appears to be no real "best" practice in this area.

To address this common challenge and bring a new resource to the field, I have worked on a framework for the important area of board oversight on learning. The framework is a synthesis of thinking on organizational lifecycles, the practice of several museums, and broad experience in the field. Because all museums pass through stages of organizational development, it is intended to apply to small and large museums of all kinds.
   
Lifecycle stages                                         
Like humans, organizations grow up, move on, and change with time and experience. Often new organizations are referred to as start-ups, just as some more established ones are considered mature. Recognizing this, management consultant Susan Kenny Stevens has identified seven stages in nonprofit organizational development and developed a lifecycles approach to understanding these organizations.

While the following descriptions are brief, recognizing our own organization or others in one of the 7 stages is easy.

• Idea: Community need sparks a founding idea
• Start-up: Beginning operations enjoy high passion while systems lag
• Growth: Demand exceeds systems and capabilities
• Mature: Reputation for steady, relevant, vital services
• Decline: Lose touch with audience; low funder confidence; declining attendance; weak financials
• Turn Around: At a critical point to reinvigorate programs, recapture market and organizational viability
• Terminal: Lost the will, energy, or reason to exist

According to Kenny Stevens, organizations build capacity across 5 areas: programs, management, governance, financial resources, and systems. Diagnostic Characteristics typical of the capacity areas for each stage help place nonprofit organizations into one of the 7 stages. The predictable tasks and challenges most organizations face in moving to the next stage in each capacity area are Performance Outcomes.

In any stage-based approach, progress is not necessarily steady, forward, or coordinated. A two-year old museum with a new 20,000 square foot facility might be in the idea stage for systems, the start-up stage in governance, and the growth stage for programs. A museum could enter the decline stage directly from the start-up or growth stage. Stages last varying lengths of time for each museum and varying times for different types of organizations. The idea stage for museums is often 5-7 years while only a few years for a community arts center.

No matter which stage a museum is at overall, moving from one stage to the next requires strengthening its current position and increasing organizational capacity. The lifecycle challenge is to achieve balance or alignment among the five capacity building components.

Different demands on an organization at each stage translate into different demands on a board, as well. For instance in governance during the start-up­ stage, board members have a personal connection to the mission or to the founder. To move into the growth stage, however, the board must move beyond “friends” and recruit outside professionals who bring increased expectations for performance. During the growth stage, committee structure, officers and recruitment processes are established. By the beginning of the mature stage, the board is a policy-oriented board that sets direction and leaves management to the director and staff.

Extensions of the board, board committees–including education–must reflect the shifts in the organization. An excellent education committee for a mature organization will be a disaster for a start-up. It will never get off the ground. Conversely, a museum will have trouble moving from start-up to growth stage or growth to mature if its education committee stalls in the idea or start-up stage. To move forward, requires a fit between the museum’s lifecycle stage and its education committee profile.

EDUCATION COMMITTEES ACROSS LIFECYCLE STAGES 
This framework for education committees reflects shifts across Kenny Stevens’ 7 lifecycle stages drawing, in particular, on 3 of the capacity areas: governance, programs, and systems. Each lifecycle stage is described briefly, accenting the characteristics salient to the committee’s work across 7 attributes: committee status; focus, decision-making; meeting schedule, supporting resources; and typical challenges. In this framework, decline, turnaround and terminal have been combined into two stages: decline-turnaround and decline-terminal.

Idea Stage: Recognition of a community need brings together a small group of committed people around a founding idea. The challenge of this stage is to mobilize others and convert an idea into action.

Committee Status. A small working group of originators giving shape to the museum by defining its learning focus and responsible for developing its learning assets such as exhibits and programs.

            Focus. The museum’s learning value, its focus, approach, and target audience in the context of its mission and the offerings of area museums, recreational and cultural offerings.
            Decision Making. Develop and recommend broad learning goals, content, approach or content, and audience to the full board, if one exists, or adopt it in lieu of the board. Review and endorse for board approval: exhibit topics, concepts, phase documents, designs. Screen and recommend consultants, designers, and fabricators to the board for contract.
             Membership. Founder(s) and founding board members. Membership may be broadened over the course of this stage.
             Meeting Schedule. Frequent but not regular meetings, often in response to external requirements such as meeting with funders or city officials.
•             Resources. Friends, family, local educators, and artists; other museums, museum associations, and professional groups. Museum planning consultants or exhibit designers may provide targeted expertise or play a major role.
           Challenges. Defining a compelling, relevant focus that attracts broad interest; communicating the museum’s learning value to stakeholders; serving audience interest rather than committee interest; recognizing that expertise and resources exist outside the originating group and accessing them; developing standard processes and procedures; documenting exhibit decisions and processes for future reference.

Start-up Stage: In the beginning stages of operation, a museum's program offerings (including exhibits) 
tend to lead while systems lag. Passion and personal commitment continue to run high, but the museum
must build a durable organization. 

Committee Status. A working committee created by the board responsible for oversight of the museum’s exhibits, programs, and other learning assets.

            Focus. How exhibits and programs serve different audience groups; how offerings relate to schools; partnerships that can add learning value; increased staff capacity for consistently smooth operation of exhibits and programs after opening.
            Decision Making. Review and endorse policies such as collections, access and inclusion, and evaluation for board approval.
            Membership. Six-to-eight board members; appointed for specific terms to coordinate with museum milestones. Ensure on-going community and education perspectives through membership or as advisors.
            Meeting Schedule. Meetings may change to frequent and regular schedules soon after opening if the committee was highly involved in exhibit planning. Move to a monthly schedule.
            Resources. Staff liaison: the museum’s most senior education manager with back-up from executive director. Other museums. Content or community advisors for exhibit or program review, expertise, or resource identification.
           Challenges. Less involved in exhibit and program decisions; understanding boundaries between board and staff roles; transitioning to longer-term thinking; pushing appropriately for smooth operations. 

Growth Stage: Mission, exhibits, and programs have taken hold, but demand and opportunities
exceed capacity and resources. To keep up, the museum grows through small, planned steps or a major
expansion. But frequently, growth just happens. This period requires focus and efficiency.

Committee Status. A standing board committee described in the by-laws and charged with growing the museum’s long-term learning value.

            Focus. The museum’s learning value to the community and its deliberate growth; audience groups and how they are served; maturing systems that help grow value and impact.
            Decision Making. Review for staff implementation and endorse for board approval: staff proposals for priority issues embedded in the strategic plan, multi-year exhibit schedule, and learning or exhibit master plan; review opportunities for evaluation, research and their implications. Does not choose exhibit topics.
            Membership. Six-to-eight members well-grounded in museum vision and strategic priorities; 4-6 board members and 2-4 community educators with varied backgrounds. All appointed by the committee chair for staggered 2-year terms. Members understand governance roles; carry out their duties in the best interest of the organization.
            Meeting Schedule. Six-to-eight times per year coordinated with organizational processes.
            Resources. Staff liaison: museum’s most senior education manager with back-up from executive director; task forces (finite term, focused) on high-level issues; access targeted expertise; other museums.
           Challenges. Building staff capacity and credibility internally and externally; focusing on organizational priorities rather than individual interests; balancing pursuit of new opportunities with developing consistent quality.     

Mature Stage: An established museum operates smoothly and has a community reputation for 
consistently relevant and high quality services and experiences. It knows its audience and its audience 
knows the museum. A leader among its peers, its challenge is to stay renewed, vibrant, and in touch with 
its audience and community

Committee Status. A standing committee described in the by-laws, charged with advancing the museum’s long-term learning interests and relevance.

            Focus. Learning interests as strategic interests; reflecting changes in the community; options for deepening learning experiences.
            Decision Making. Review for staff implementation and endorse for board approval: large-scale efforts or initiatives, master plans, multi-year exhibit and program schedules, projects that require fiduciary risk. Serve as a sounding board for new initiatives and appropriate but potentially controversial projects.
            Membership. Six-to-eight members: 4-to-6 board members well grounded in organizational vision, strategic priorities, and governance roles; 2-3 community or educational representatives. All appointed by the board chair for staggered 2-year terms to carry out their duties in the best interest of the organization.
            Meeting Schedule. Four-to-six meetings per year.
            Resources. Staff liaison: museum’s most senior education manager with back-up from executive director; task forces (finite term, focused) on high-level issues.
           Challenges. Staying renewed: remaining audience centered, being current and responsive to community issues and visitor expectations; balancing being locally relevant with being active on a regional or national front

Decline-Turnaround Stage: A typical setback in a difficult external environment or a series of 
disappointments can start a museum into a period of decline at any lifecycle stage. As a result, a museum 
may lose contact with its audience or lose funder confidence. If a board takes decisive action and meets 
the challenge, it can turn the museum around. This requires a fundamental re-focus on mission and 
market; it may also involve major restructuring or management, program, finances, operations, and marketing. 

Characteristics of the education committee during the decline stage reflect whatever stage the museum is in as decline sets in. During turnaround, the education committee would very likely be reformed and refocus its work to reflect new priorities or structure depending on the nature and source of the decline. If a turnaround is successful, a museum may find itself in a startup or growth stage with a corresponding education committee profile. 

Committee Status: A board task force appointed by the committee or board chair for a specific term or outcome.

            Focus. A sharpened focus on learning in support of an affirmed or revitalized mission; the museum’s learning value to its audience. 
            Decision Making. Review staff work and make recommendations for staff implementation as appropriate. Assess current educational products and services; regularly review exhibit and program performance information; evaluate current and new educational and partnership opportunities. Adjust exhibit, programs, and projects to reflect new thinking, priorities and structure including program or project termination or redirection.
            Membership. Three-to-five board members who have internalized the need for change.
            Meeting Schedule. As necessary during a defined time period.
            Resources. Staff liaison: a turnaround manager or senior education manager. The museum’s executive director who was at the helm during the decline stage is typically not the leader suited to oversee a turnaround. Outside consultants with targeted expertise.
           Challenges. Regaining focus on learning and audience at the appropriate scale for a fragile organization; retaining staff morale; willingness to make difficult decisions; coordination with other board task forces.

Decline-Terminal Stage: The same setback in a difficult external environment or a series of 
disappointments can lead to a terminal, rather than a terminal, stage. When a board fails to face the 
crisis or the crisis is too great for the museum's capacity, it is at the far end of the lifecycle with few
options. Without the capacity or reason to stay alive, the museum calls it quits.

Characteristics of the education committee during the decline stage will reflect whatever stage the museum is in as decline sets. As the board works through the terminal stage, education committee work is likely to be assigned to a subcommittee or absorbed into the board’s work to acquit itself of its legal and fiduciary responsibilities.

Committee Status. A board subcommittee or designated board members.

            Focus. The board’s programmatic, project, and partner obligations.
            Decision Making. Disposition of exhibits to another museum or organization; determining status of program grants; assuring execution of grant monitoring reports; assuring open, honest communication to program partners.
            Membership. A small group of board members willing to execute the museum’s responsibility in an honorable manner.
            Meeting Schedule. As needed to complete the work.
            Resources. Staff liaison may be unavailable; if possible, the most senior educational manager or executive director.
           Challenges. Honest communication; avoiding blame; being respectful of the museum’s past.

Getting started                                          
It’s never too early or too late to align an education committee with its lifecycle work. With existing dynamics, personalities and precedents and with many demands on museum leadership’s time and attention, this is no simple task. A framework profiling an education committee across the lifecycle is a tool with a shared and positive view of what a committee can be and do for the museum and those responsible: the executive director, board chair, committee chair, and education director.

Change can begin with diagnosing where a museum is in its lifecycle. Kenny Stevens’ book is an excellent resource for this. The lifecycle summaries described here are also a starting point allowing a quick comparison between an education committee’s current structure, composition, and focus and another lifecycle stage. At a glance this can point to manageable changes in promising areas such as a committee chair, membership recruitment, framing agendas, and shifting vocabulary.

Understanding the arc of change over the lifecycle is necessary for real change. Across stages for each attribute there is movement from internal to external, from details to the big picture, from doing to policy. Each part of the profile reflects the nature of these changes.

Committee Status evolves from personal, informal and ad hoc to organized, professional and long-term.

            Focus changes from exhibits and programs to the museum’s learning role and impact in the community; from short-term to long-term thinking; from a staff-like focus to a board focus; and from internal focus on specific exhibits and programs to an external focus on audience and community.
            Decision Making evolves from making specific decisions to review of direction for staff implementation to endorsement of staff work for board approval.
            Membership of the committee shifts from personal connections for recruiting members to board appointment of members; from an all-museum member committee to one with several community members with diverse perspectives.
            Meeting Schedule decreases in frequency reflecting reliance on annual processes and staff expertise and work. 
            Resources change from generalist to specialist; from board to staff; from learning-on-the-job to accessing targeted experience.
            Challenges shift from building learning assets to leveraging learning assets.

These shifts tend to be true in both small and large museums. Even in a small museum in which committee members need to occasionally take on staff roles, members must shift mindsets from implementation to policy as a committee during the growth and mature stages.

Changing education committees is about organizational growth and development. Whether the shift to a new profile is greater or smaller, it involves change–in mindset, capacity, resources, direction, or patience. It takes time and shared effort. When, however, an education committee begins to inhabit its appropriate profile, the effort shows. The committee, and through it, the board becomes a greater asset in increasing the museum’s learning value to its audience and community.

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